Volume 6, Issue 3, September 2018, Page: 21-28
Biodiesel Synthesis with Iron Oxide Nano-Catalyst Catalyzed Pongamia Pinnata Seed Oil and Dimethyl Carbonate
Balaji Panchal, Key Laboratory for Resource Exploration Research, Hebei University of Engineering, Handan, China
Qin Shenjun, Key Laboratory for Resource Exploration Research, Hebei University of Engineering, Handan, China
Wang Jinxi, Key Laboratory for Resource Exploration Research, Hebei University of Engineering, Handan, China
Bian Kai, Key Laboratory for Resource Exploration Research, Hebei University of Engineering, Handan, China
Tao Chang, Key Laboratory for Resource Exploration Research, Hebei University of Engineering, Handan, China
Received: Oct. 20, 2018;       Accepted: Nov. 2, 2018;       Published: Nov. 28, 2018
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajee.20180603.11      View  24      Downloads  8
Abstract
The aim of this research was to investigate the biodiesel production from Pongamia pinnata seed oil and dimethyl carbonate with an iron oxide nano-catalyzed transesterification reaction. A significant biodiesel yield (96%) was obtained with optimal operating conditions as the dimethyl carbonate to oil molar ratio (5:1), iron oxide nano-catalyst (50 mg% based on oil weight), agitation speed of 150 rpm and 60°C temperature for 5 h reaction time. The produced methyl esters from the transesterification process were confirmed to be almost identical to commercial standard biodiesel by thin layer chromatography. The produced methyl esters were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using an internal standard. Properties of methyl esters were characterized such as kinematic viscosity at 40°C, specific gravity at 25°C, flash point, cloud point, pour point, copper strip corrosion and acid value. The properties of the produced biodiesel were within the specifications of the American biodiesel standard, ASTM D6751-02. The results showed that all of tested reaction variables in this study had positive effects. In this research studied, a novel method has developed for production of biodiesel under mild conditions using DMC and iron oxide nano-catalyst. Iron oxide nano-catalyst could be potential candidate for use in the large-scale biodiesel production.
Keywords
Pongamia Pinnata Oil, Iron Oxide Nano-catalyst, Dimethyl Carbonate, TLC, GC-MS
To cite this article
Balaji Panchal, Qin Shenjun, Wang Jinxi, Bian Kai, Tao Chang, Biodiesel Synthesis with Iron Oxide Nano-Catalyst Catalyzed Pongamia Pinnata Seed Oil and Dimethyl Carbonate, American Journal of Energy Engineering. Vol. 6, No. 3, 2018, pp. 21-28. doi: 10.11648/j.ajee.20180603.11
Copyright
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
W-Y. Choi, G-V. Kim, S-Y. Lee, H-Y. Lee, Biodiesel production from Scenedesmus sp. through optimized in situ acidic transesterification process. Chem. Biochem. Eng Q 2014, 28 (3): 367–74.
[2]
R. Murmu, H. Sutar1, S. Patra, Experimental investigation and process optimization of biodiesel production from kusum oil using taguchi method. Adv. Chem. Engineer. Sci 2017, 7: 464–76.
[3]
H. C. Onga, T. M. I. Mahliaa, H. H. Masjuki, R. S. Norhasyima, Comparison of palm oil, Jatropha curcas and Calophyllum inophyllum for biodiesel: A review. Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev 2011, 15: 3501–15.
[4]
Y. Tang, H. Ren, F. Chang, X. Gu, J. Zhang, Nano KF/Al2O3 particles as an efficient catalyst for no-glycerol biodiesel production by coupling transesterification. Roy. Soc. Chem 2017, 7: 5694–700.
[5]
A. Demirbas, Importance of biodiesel as transportation fuel. Energ. Policy 2007, 35: 4661–70.
[6]
Y. Chisti, Biodiesel from microalgae beats bioethanol. Cell. Press 2008, 26: 126-31.
[7]
S. N. Bobade, V. B. Khyade, Preparation of methyl ester (Biodiesel) from Karanja (Pongamia oinnata) oil. Res. J. Chem. Sci 2012, 2(8): 43–50.
[8]
J. Hill, E. Nelson, D. Tilman, D., 2006. Environmental, economical energetic costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci 2006, 103: 11206–210.
[9]
L. Bournay, D. Casanave, B. Delfort, G. Hillion, J. A Chodorge, New heterogeneous process for biodiesel production: A way to improve the quality and the value of the crude glycerine produced by biodiesel plants. Catal. Today 2005, 106: 190–92.
[10]
Q. Shu, B. Yang, H. Yuan, S. Qing, G. Zhu, Synthesis of biodiesel from soybean oil and methanol catalyzed by zeolite beta modified with La3+. Catal. Commun 2007, 8: 2159– 165.
[11]
T. Kambiz, N. A. Yasaman, F. Reza, M. Sogol, D. Elham, D., 2015. The study of CaO and MgO heterogenic nano-catalyst coupling on transesterification reaction efficacy in the production of biodiesel from recycled cooking oil. J. Environ. Heal. Sci. Eng 2015, 13:73. DOI 10.1186/s40201-015-02267–70.
[12]
S. Chaturvedi, N. Pragnesh, N. K. Dave, Shah, Applications of nano-catalyst in new era. J. Saudi. Chem. Soc 2012, 16: 307–25.
[13]
Y. M. Kurle, M. R. Islam, T. J. Benson, Process development and simulation of glycerol-free biofuel from canola oil and dimethyl carbonate. Fuel. Process. Technol 2013, 114(0): 49–57.
[14]
D. Delledonne, F. Rivetti, U. Romano, Synthesis of dimethyl carbonate from oxidative carbonylation of methanol catalyzed by Cu(phen) Cl2. Appl. Catal. A 2001, 221: 241–51.
[15]
Y. Syamsuddina, B. H. Hameeda, Synthesis of glycerol free-fatty acid methyl esters from Jatropha oil over Ca–La mixed-oxide catalyst. J. Taiwan. Inst. Chem. Eng 2015, 1–8.
[16]
L. Zhang, B. Sheng, Z. Xin, Q. Liu, S. Sun, Kinetics of transesterification of palm oil and dimethyl carbonate for biodiesel production at the catalysis of heterogeneous base catalyst. Bioresour. Technol 2010, 101(21): 8144–50.
[17]
S. V. A. R. Sastry, C. V. R. Murthy, Synthesis of biodiesel by In-situ transesterification of Karanja oil. Bangladesh. J. Sci. Ind. Res 2014, 49(4): 211–18.
[18]
A. Folasegun, O. A. Olubunmi, X. Jiayu, Z. Suojiang, Dimethyl carbonate mediated production of biodiesel at different reaction temperatures. Rene. Energ 2014, 68: 581–87.
[19]
M. Rengasamy, K. Anbalagan, S. Mohanraj, Biodiesel production from pongamia pinnata oil using synthesized iron nanocatalyst. Int. J. Chem. Tech. Res 2014, 6(10): 4511–516.
[20]
O. Babajide, L. Petrik, N. Musjoka, B. Amigun, F. Ameer, Use of coal fly ash as catalyst in the production of biodiesel. Pet. Coal 2010, 2(4): 216–72.
[21]
S. Ayten, M. O. Hakki, S. I. Sebnem, P. Hatice, M. Neslihan, Toprakkiran, Alkali catalysis of different vegetable oils for comparisons of their biodiesel productivity. J. Sust. Bioenerg. Syst 2013, 3 (1): 79–85.
[22]
H. Wang, J. Covarrubias, H. Prock, X. Wu, D. Wang, S. H. Bossmann, Acid- functionalized agnetic nanoparticle as heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel synthesis. J. Phys. Chem. C 2015, 119: 26020–28.
[23]
M. Feyzi, E. Shahbazi, Catalytic performance and characterization of Cs–Ca/SiO2–TiO2 nanocatalysts for biodiesel production. J. Mole. Catal. A. Chem 2015, 404- 405: 131–38.
[24]
A. Ramli, M. Farooq, Optimization of process parameters for the production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil in the presence of bifunctional c-Al2O3-CeO2 supported catalysts. Malays. J. Anal. Sci 2015, 19 (1): 8–19.
[25]
A. Hayyan, M. Z, Alam, E. S. Mirghani, N. A. Kabbashi, N. Hakimi, Y. Siran, S. Tahiruddin, Sludge palm oil as a renewable raw material forbiodiesel production by two-step processes. Bioresour. Technol 2010, 101: 7804–811.
[26]
B. D. Patil, V. G. Gude, S. Deng, Biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas, waste cooking, and Camelina sativa oils. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res 2009, 48: 10850–856.
[27]
Y. Syamsuddin, Y. M. N. Murat, B. H. Hameed, Synthesis of fatty acid methyl ester from the transesterification of high- and low-acid-content crude palm oil (Elaeis guineensis) and karanj oil (Pongamia pinnata) over a calcium–lanthanum–aluminum mixed-oxides catalyst. Bioresour. Technol 2016, 214: 248–52.
[28]
P. Chattip, P. Prasert, T. Q. Armando, G. Motonobu, S. Artiwan, Microalgal lipid extraction and evaluation of single-step biodiesel production. Eng. J 2012, (5): 16, http://dx.doi.org/10.4186/ej.2012.16.5
[29]
G. K. Ayetor, A. Sunnu, J. Parbey, Effect of biodiesel production parameters on viscosity and yield of methyl esters: jatropha curcas, Elaeis guineensis and Cocos nucifera. Alex. Eng. J 2015, 54 (4): 1285–90.
[30]
N. A. M. Alia, N. Aziz, Optimization of DMC transesterification based biodiesel production. Adv. Mate. Res 2015, 1113: 370–75.
[31]
B. M. Panchal, S. A. Deshmukh, M. R. Sharma, Production and kinetic transesterification of biodiesel from yellow grease with dimethyl carbonate using methanesulfonic acid as a catalyst. Environ. Prog. Sust. Energ 2017 DOI: 10.1002/ep.12559.
[32]
P. D. Patil, V. G. Gude, A. Mannarswamy, S. Deng, P. Cooke, S. Munson-McGee, I. Rhodes, P. Lammers, N. N. Khandan, Optimization of direct conversion of wet algae to biodiesel under supercritical methanol conditions. Bioresour. Technol 2011, 102(1): 118–22.
[33]
T. Eevera, K. Rajendran, S. Saradha, Biodiesel production process optimization and characterization to assess the suitability of the product for varied environmental conditions. Rene. Energ 2009, 34(3): 762–65. doi: 10.1016/j.renene.2008.04.006.
[34]
D. Fabbri, V. Bevoni, M. Notari, F. Rivetti, Properties of a potential biofuel obtained from soybean oil by transmethylation with dimethyl carbonate. Fuel 2007, 86: 690–97.
[35]
G. Knothe, K. R. Steidley, Kinematic viscosity of biodiesel fuel components and related compounds. Influence of compound structure and comparison to petro diesel fuel components. Fuel 2005, 84: 1059–65.
[36]
M. Lapuerta, J. Rodríguez-Fernández, C. Estevez, N. Bayarri, Properties of fatty acid glycerol formal ester (FAGE) for use as a component in blends for diesel engines. Biomass. Bioenerg 2015, 76: 130–40.
[37]
A. Demirbas, Progress and recent trends in biodiesel fuels. Energ. Conver. Manag 2009, 50(1): 14–34. doi: 10.1016/j. enconman.2008.09.001.
[38]
P. Nakpong, S. Wootthikanokkhan, Optimization of biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas L. oil via alkali-catalyzed methanolysis. J. Sust. Energ. Environ 2010, 1: 105–09.
[39]
M. P. Dorado, E. Ballesteros, F. J. Lopez, M. Mittelbach, Optimization of alkali- catalyzed transesterification of Brassica Carinata oil for biodiesel production. Energ. Fuel 2004, 18: 77–83.
[40]
L. Meher, D. Vidyasagar, S. Naik, Technical aspects of biodiesel production by transesterification-a review. Rene. Sust. Energ. Rev 2006 10(3): 248–68. doi: 10.1016/j.rser. 2004.09.002.
[41]
R. Rubi, L. M. Sandra, N. Reyna, Biodiesel production by using heterogeneous catalysts. Altern. Fuel 2011, 1–20.
[42]
S. Fernando, P. Karra, R. Hernandez, Effect of incompletely converted soybean oil on biodiesel quality. Energ 2007, 32(5): 844–51.
Browse journals by subject