American Journal of Energy Engineering

Research Article | | Peer-Reviewed |

A Roadmap for Detroit to Bolster E-bus Adoption by 2033

Received: 15 December 2023    Accepted: 3 January 2024    Published: 18 January 2024
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Abstract

Compared with internal combustion engine vehicles, electronic vehicles are quiet and comfortable, with no noise from the engine, no consumption of fossil fuels, and no emission of smelly air pollutants. The only drawback of electronic vehicles is they take a long time for the batteries to be charged. This could be solved by optimizing bus routes, building more charge stations, and adopting fast charge technology. In this paper, the ecological and financial consequences of replacing diesel buses with electronic buses is analyzed. As the result shows it not only saves energy and reduces the emission of air pollutants, but also minimizes the operational costs and therefore greatly increases the profits. A model based on revenue and expenditure is built, which is capable of plotting a detailed roadmap, with the specific number of electronic buses to upgrade, and the forecast of corresponded financial implication on expenses and income year by year. Based on the model, two different kinds of path of transition are analyzed. The first kind is to do it slowly and upgrade only a limited number of electronic buses every year, especially in the beginning years. This kind of plan would minimize the external funding needed during the transition, but cannot repay the external funding by the end of 10 years. The other kind is to upgrade as many electronic buses as the external funding could provide at the beginning. Although it would cause a heavy burden on fiscal revenue, the transition can be achieved faster and make more profits by the end of 10 years, eventually able to repay the external funding.

DOI 10.11648/j.ajee.20241201.12
Published in American Journal of Energy Engineering (Volume 12, Issue 1, April 2024)
Page(s) 10-16
Creative Commons

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, provided the original work is properly cited.

Copyright

Copyright © The Author(s), 2024. Published by Science Publishing Group

Keywords

Electronic Bus Fleet, Revenue and Expenditure Model, Environmental Protection

References
[1] Rosenberger M, Dellner M, Kluge M, et al. Vehicle integration of a thermoelectric generator [J]. MTZ worldwide, 2016, 77(4): 36-43.
[2] Song Lan, Qingshan Li, Xin Guo, Shukun Wang, Rui Chen. Fuel saving potential analysis of bifunctional vehicular waste heat recovery system using thermoelectric generator and organic Rankine cycle. Energy, 263 (2023): 125717.
[3] VARGA B. O., ICLODEAN C., MARIAȘIU F. Electric and Hybrid Buses for Urban Transport Energy Efficiency Strategies, 1st ed.; Springer International Publishing: Switzerland, 85, 2016.
[4] Diesel bus emission. Available from: https://www.proterra.com/products/transit-buses/fuel-economy/. [Accessed 2 January 2024].
[5] Shawki A, Patrick W, Markus Z. Development of Demand Factors for Electric Car Charging Points for Varying Charging Powers and Area Types [J]. Electricity, 2022, 3(3): 410-441.
[6] Plakhtii O, Nerubatskyi V, Mashura A, et al. Improving energy indicators of the charging station for electric vehicles based on a three-level active rectifier [J]. Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, 2020, 3(8): 46-55.
[7] Range of electric buses. Available from: https://gomotive.com/blog/electric-buses-guide-commercial-fleets/.[Accessed 2 January 2024].
[8] BAK D.-B., BAK J.-S., KIM S.-Y. Strategies for Implementing Public Service Electric Bus Lines by Charging Type in Daegu Metropolitan City, South Korea. Sustainability, 10 (10), 3386, 2018.
[9] Population of Detroit. Available from: https://www.census.gov/glossary/#term_Populationestimates. [Accessed 2 January 2024].
[10] Number of buses in Detroit. Available from: https://detroitmi.gov/news/ddot-deploys-four-electric-buses-part-charge-greener-operations. [Accessed 2 January 2024].
[11] The bus map of Detroit city. Available from: https://storymaps.arcgis.com/stories/e3532909f74d4977abe053fc2305d72e. [Accessed 2 January 2024].
[12] The overall average efficiency of the Proterra electronic bus. Available from: https://evobsession.com/nrel-proterra-ev-buses-possess-average-fuel-economy-roughly-4-times-higher-than-that-of-cng-baseline-buses. [Accessed 2 January 2024].
[13] LI Tuyu, YU Dali, ZHANG Hongshen. Using the GREET Model to Assess the Life Cycle of Electric and Conventional Buses [J]. Research of Environmental Sciences, 2017, 30(10): 1653-1660. doi: 10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2017.02.96.
[14] Song Lan, Richard Stobart, and Rui Chen. Performance comparison of a thermoelectric generator applied in conventional vehicles and extended-range electric vehicles. Energy Conversion and Management, 266 (2022): 115791.
[15] Massaguer A, Massaguer E, Comamala M, et al. A method to assess the fuel economy of automotive thermoelectric generators [J]. Applied Energy, 2018, 222: 42-58.
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  • APA Style

    Tang, P., Zhang, Z., Li, X., Wu, Y. (2024). A Roadmap for Detroit to Bolster E-bus Adoption by 2033. American Journal of Energy Engineering, 12(1), 10-16. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajee.20241201.12

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    ACS Style

    Tang, P.; Zhang, Z.; Li, X.; Wu, Y. A Roadmap for Detroit to Bolster E-bus Adoption by 2033. Am. J. Energy Eng. 2024, 12(1), 10-16. doi: 10.11648/j.ajee.20241201.12

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    AMA Style

    Tang P, Zhang Z, Li X, Wu Y. A Roadmap for Detroit to Bolster E-bus Adoption by 2033. Am J Energy Eng. 2024;12(1):10-16. doi: 10.11648/j.ajee.20241201.12

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  • @article{10.11648/j.ajee.20241201.12,
      author = {Pengyu Tang and Ziyang Zhang and Xinhang Li and Yixi Wu},
      title = {A Roadmap for Detroit to Bolster E-bus Adoption by 2033},
      journal = {American Journal of Energy Engineering},
      volume = {12},
      number = {1},
      pages = {10-16},
      doi = {10.11648/j.ajee.20241201.12},
      url = {https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajee.20241201.12},
      eprint = {https://article.sciencepublishinggroup.com/pdf/10.11648.j.ajee.20241201.12},
      abstract = {Compared with internal combustion engine vehicles, electronic vehicles are quiet and comfortable, with no noise from the engine, no consumption of fossil fuels, and no emission of smelly air pollutants. The only drawback of electronic vehicles is they take a long time for the batteries to be charged. This could be solved by optimizing bus routes, building more charge stations, and adopting fast charge technology. In this paper, the ecological and financial consequences of replacing diesel buses with electronic buses is analyzed. As the result shows it not only saves energy and reduces the emission of air pollutants, but also minimizes the operational costs and therefore greatly increases the profits. A model based on revenue and expenditure is built, which is capable of plotting a detailed roadmap, with the specific number of electronic buses to upgrade, and the forecast of corresponded financial implication on expenses and income year by year. Based on the model, two different kinds of path of transition are analyzed. The first kind is to do it slowly and upgrade only a limited number of electronic buses every year, especially in the beginning years. This kind of plan would minimize the external funding needed during the transition, but cannot repay the external funding by the end of 10 years. The other kind is to upgrade as many electronic buses as the external funding could provide at the beginning. Although it would cause a heavy burden on fiscal revenue, the transition can be achieved faster and make more profits by the end of 10 years, eventually able to repay the external funding.
    },
     year = {2024}
    }
    

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  • TY  - JOUR
    T1  - A Roadmap for Detroit to Bolster E-bus Adoption by 2033
    AU  - Pengyu Tang
    AU  - Ziyang Zhang
    AU  - Xinhang Li
    AU  - Yixi Wu
    Y1  - 2024/01/18
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    DO  - 10.11648/j.ajee.20241201.12
    T2  - American Journal of Energy Engineering
    JF  - American Journal of Energy Engineering
    JO  - American Journal of Energy Engineering
    SP  - 10
    EP  - 16
    PB  - Science Publishing Group
    SN  - 2329-163X
    UR  - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajee.20241201.12
    AB  - Compared with internal combustion engine vehicles, electronic vehicles are quiet and comfortable, with no noise from the engine, no consumption of fossil fuels, and no emission of smelly air pollutants. The only drawback of electronic vehicles is they take a long time for the batteries to be charged. This could be solved by optimizing bus routes, building more charge stations, and adopting fast charge technology. In this paper, the ecological and financial consequences of replacing diesel buses with electronic buses is analyzed. As the result shows it not only saves energy and reduces the emission of air pollutants, but also minimizes the operational costs and therefore greatly increases the profits. A model based on revenue and expenditure is built, which is capable of plotting a detailed roadmap, with the specific number of electronic buses to upgrade, and the forecast of corresponded financial implication on expenses and income year by year. Based on the model, two different kinds of path of transition are analyzed. The first kind is to do it slowly and upgrade only a limited number of electronic buses every year, especially in the beginning years. This kind of plan would minimize the external funding needed during the transition, but cannot repay the external funding by the end of 10 years. The other kind is to upgrade as many electronic buses as the external funding could provide at the beginning. Although it would cause a heavy burden on fiscal revenue, the transition can be achieved faster and make more profits by the end of 10 years, eventually able to repay the external funding.
    
    VL  - 12
    IS  - 1
    ER  - 

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Author Information
  • Hefei No.1 Middle School, Hefei, China

  • Hefei No.1 Middle School, Hefei, China

  • Hefei No.1 Middle School, Hefei, China

  • Hefei No.1 Middle School, Hefei, China

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